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2013 GRADE 8 NATURAL SCIENCES BASELINE TEST

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QUESTION 1

1.1 Various options are given as possible answers to the following questions' Choose the correct answer and write only the letter (A to D) next to the question number (1.1.1 to 1.1.10) in the ANSWER BOOK, for example 1.1.11 D.

1.1.1 ln order to test a hypothesis, a scientist designs an experiment. He/she asks 27 learners to make observations about boiling water in a beaker. The diagram below shows one of her learners.

Because the learners must be kept safe from harm, which statement BEST describes the mistakes in the laboratory practices shown in the diagram below?


A. The opening of the test tube is pointed toward the learner and he is not wearing safety goggles.

B. The test tube has no stopper in it and the learner is not wearing safety goggles.

C. The flame is too high and the test tube is has no stopper in it.

D. The beaker has water in it and the flame is under the tripod.

(2 marks)

1.1.2 Thembisa pours herself a glass of cola with ice in it. ldentify which objects are solid, liquid, and gas.

A. The cola is the solid, the ice is the liquid, and the bubbles are the gas.

B. The ice is the solid, the bubbles are the liquids, and the cola is the gas.

C. The bubbles are the solids, the cola is the liquid, and the ice is the gas.

D. The ice is the solid, the cola is the liquid, and the bubbles are the gas.

(2 marks)

1.1.3 A student is conducting an experiment about seed germination. When the seeds germinate, which part of the plants will grow first?

A. Leaf

B. Root

C. Stem

D. Flower

(2 marks)

1.1.4 Which process is shown in the diagram below?


A. metamorphosis

B. regulation

C. fertilization

D. respiration

(2 marks)

1.1.5 A learner will measure and record the growth of two flowering plants every other day for 10 days.


According to the diagram, which question is being tested?

A. How much fertilizer do flowering plants need?

B. Does fertilizer added to the soil lead to taller flowering plants?

C. Do flowering plants grow better when watered with salt water?

D. How tall do flowering plants grow?

(2 marks)

1.1.6 The solid part of Earth's surface is called the ...

A. hydrosphere

B. lithosphere

C. troposphere

D. atmosphere.

(2 marks)


1.1.7 The largest body in our solar system is ...

A. Earth

B. the Sun

C. Jupiter

D. the Moon

(2 marks)

1.1.8 Volcanoes erupt when they become active. Until an eruption occurs, volcanoes are described as...

A. stagnant

B. dormant

C. extinct

D. plugged

(2 marks)

1.1.9 Study the diagrams below and answer the questions that follow.

Martin shines a torch on a globe. lt models the Sun shining on the Earth.


Estimate what time of day it would be on the Earth at place A.

A. A = 6.00 pm

B. A = 12.00 pm

C. A = 9.00 pm

D. A = 2.00 pm

(2 marks)

1.1.10 which statement best describes Earth's movement in relation to the sun?

A. The sun revolves around the Earth

B. The sun and Earth revolve around each other

C. The Earth revolves around the sun

D. The sun and Earth revolve around other planets

(2 marks)

(10 x 2 = 20 marks)

1.2 Choose an item from COLUMN B that matches a description in COLUMN A. ln your answer book, write down only the Question number and next to it the correct term (e.g. 1.2.11 Organisms)

(10 x 1 = 10 marks)

1.3 The appliances shown in COLUMN A below transform electrical energy into other useful forms of energy, shown in COLUMN B. Study the appliances and answer the questions that follow.

ln your answer book, write down numbers 1.3.1 to 1.3.4. Complete the answer by useful forms of energy, in COLUMN B with the appliances 1.3.1 to 1.3.4.

(1x4 = 4 marks)

1.4 Study the diagram below and answer the questions that follow.


Name the missing colours of the spectrum labelled A and B.

(2 x 1 = 2 marks)

1.5 Study the diagram below which shows the energy transferred each second by a television set and answer the questions that follow.

1.5.1 State the form of energy which is transferred as waste energy by the television set. (1)

1.5.2 How will the waste energy mentioned in Question 1.6.1 affect the temperature of the air around the television set? (1)

1.5.3 State ONE precautionary measure you will take to save energy wasted by a television set at your home. (2)

1.5.4 State TWO things that we will be saving within our environments by not wasting energy with appliances like a television set. (4)

(2+1+1+2+4 = 10 marks)

TOTAL QUESTION 1 (44 Marks)


QUESTION 2

2.1 A learner set up the apparatus shown below to measure the volume of a steel ball. Study the diagrams below and answer the questions that follow.




2.1.1 Give the name of the apparatus shown above, which is used to measure the volume of a steel ball.

(1 mark)

2.1.2 When a steel ball was carefully placed into the apparatus A, it resulted in the arrangement shown in apparatus B. Write down the new reading of water in apparatus B?

(1 mark)

2.1.3 Calculate the volume of a steel ball from the information shown above. Show all Your calculations.

(2 marks) (= 4 marks)

2.2 ln winter, people put salt on the road to make the ice melt. John investigates the effect of salt on melting ice. He puts the same amount of ice in two funnels. He adds salt to the ice in the second funnel.


The ice starts to melt. Every ten minutes, John measures how much water is in each cylinder. John's results are indicated in the graph below.

Study the graph below and answer the questions that follow.



2.2.1 One axis on the graph has been labelled. Write the label and the units for the other axis.

(2 marks)

2.2.2 What has John found out about the effect of salt on melting ice?

(2 marks)

2.2.3 John concludes: 'The more salt I add, the steeper the line on the graph becomes'.

John's results on the graph do not support his conclusion. Choose ONE statement below to show why his results do not support his conclusion.

a. The line on the graph did not get steeper.

b. He used the same amount of ice each time.

c. He did not try different amounts of salt.

d. He only measured the water every ten minutes.

(2 marks)
(2+2+2 = 6 marks)

2.3 Study the picture below of Rick using a thermometer to measure the temperature of some water.


2.3.1 State TWO things that are wrong with the way Rick is trying to measure the temperature-of the water?

(4 marks)

2.3.2 Rick and Kashief want to find out how the temperature of water affects the time taken for sugar to dissolve.

(a) What is the ONE factor they should change as they carry out their investigation?

(2 marks)

(b) State ONE of the factors they should keep the same to make their investigation valid.

(2 marks)
(4+2+2 = 8 MARKS)

2.4 Separating Materials

Marius collected some sea water near the beach. The sea water tasted salty and was full of fine sand. He separated the sand from the sea water using the apparatus shown below.



2.4.1 Name the apparatus labelled M.

(2 marks)

2.4.2 What name is given to this method of separating sand from the sea water?

(1 mark)

2.4.3 (a) Substance L was retained by the filter paper. Give the name of the substance.

(2 marks)

(b) Substance N passed through the filter paper. Name one constituent of substance N.

(2 marks)
(2+1+2+2 = 7 marks)

2.5 Naledi boiled some red cabbage in water. The cabbage-water solution turned purple.

2.5.1 Naledi separated pieces of cabbage from the cabbage-water solution. She then wanted to find out if the purple cabbage-water solution contained more than one coloured substance.

Which method will she use to find out if purple cabbage-water contained more than one coloured substance?

(2 marks)

2.5.2 Naledi mixed the purple cabbage-water with some other three (3) liquids. She wrote the colours of the mixtures in a table shown below.


Use the information in the table to answer parts (a) and (b) below.

(a) Naledi mixed cabbage-water with a colourless shower gel. The mixture turned blue. what does this tell you about the shower gel?

(2 marks)

(b) Naledi then mixed cabbage-water with lemon juice. Lemon juice is acidic. What colour was the mixture?

(2 marks)

2.5.3 What is the name of a chemical which changes colour when it is mixed with acids or alkalines?

(2 marks)
(2+2+2+2 = 8 marks)

2.6 Nompumelelo bought a can of Wax Seal to spray the parts underneath her car.

The body of a car is made from steel. Steel contains iron. Two substances that are needed for iron to rust are oxygen and water.



2.6.1 How does Wax Seal help to protect the car from rusting?

(2 marks)

2.6.2 Wax Seal can also be used on the upper parts of a car. What else can protect body parts such as car doors from rusting?

(1 marks)

2.6.3 The diagram below shows the mixture of particles of wax and white spirit in Wax Seal.


After Nompumelelo sprays the car, the white spirit evaporates leaving a layer of solid wax on the surface.

(a) Draw a box similar to the one drawn below. ln the box, draw eight circles, to show the arrangement of particles in a gas.

(2 marks)

 



  NOTE: The arrangement must be very clear.

 

Particles in a gas

(b) Draw a box similar to the one drawn below. ln the box, draw eight circles, to show the arrangement of particles in a solid.

(2 Marks)

 

 

 

 

Particles in a solid

(2+1+2+2 = 7 marks)

TOTAL QUESTION 2  40 marks


QUESTION 3

3.1 Study the diagram below which shows a human body cell and answer the questions that follow.



3.1.1 Label structures R, S and T.

(3 marks)

3.1.2 State TWO functions of structure S.

(4 marks)
(3+4 = 7 marks)

3.2 Some learners draw a food chain about living organisms they observe in the garden. There is a mistake in the food chain they have drawn below.


3.2.1 ldentify the mistake in their food chain?

(2 marks)

3.2.2 Draw a correct food chain using only the names of organisms given in the food chain above.

(4 marks)

3.2.3 What is the function of the cabbage in the food chain?

(2 marks)
(2+4+2 = 8 marks)

3.3 The diagram below shows part of the female reproductive system. Study the diagram and answer the Questions that follow.
 


3.3.1 An egg (female gamete) is released from the part labelled __________.

(1 mark)

3.3.2 The fusion (joining) of the egg with the sperm usually takes place in the part labelled ___________.

(1 mark)

3.3.3 During pregnancy the baby develops in the part labelled ___________.

(1 mark)
(1+1+1 = 3 marks)

3.4 Read the passage below and answer the questions that follow:

AIDS

Acquired Immune deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is caused by a virus and is one of the most feared diseases today. It is partially serious because it is deadly and incurable. More than a million people world-wide have died of the disease and much more are infected.

The virus which causes AIDS is known as Human lmmuno-deficiency virus (HIV). HIV can enter the body during sexual intercourse or by an infected person's blood getting into someone else's blood. The risk of contracting AIDS is extremely high under promiscuous persons and drug addicts who share injection needles.

HIV destroys the immune system of the body and leaves the victim without any defense against diseases. The body of an infected person becomes very vulnerable to illnesses, such as pneumonia and rare forms of cancer. Pregnant mothers infected by HIV can transmit the disease to her unborn child with fatal consequences.


3.4.1 Give the name of the virus causing AIDS.

(2 marks)

3.4.2 State ONE way how a person can become infected with AIDS.

(1 mark)

3.4.3 Which group of individuals has the highest risk of contracting AIDS?

(1 mark)

3.4.4 why are people with AIDS more susceptible to illnesses?

(2 marks)

3.4.5 Name ONE illness that people with AIDS may suffer from.

(1 mark)
(2+1+1+2+1 = 7 marks)

TOTAL QUESTION 3 (25 marks)


QUESTION 4

4.1 Earth scientists have discovered that the Earth has three layers.

The diagram below shows the three layers of the Earth. Study the diagram and answer the questions that follow.



4.1.1 Label the three layers of the Earth indicated by the letters, X, Y or Z from the diagram.

(3 marks)

4.1.2 (a) ln which layer of the Earth is soil found?

(1 mark)

         (b) Which layer contains solid iron and nickel?

(1 mark)

4.1.3 How long does the Earth take to orbit the sun once?

(1 mark)

4.1.4 Explain how the Earth moves to cause day and night?

(2 marks)
(3+1+1+1+2 = 8 marks)

4.2 Pluto was discovered in 1930. lt was classified as a planet. In 2006, scientists agreed that Pluto is not a planet.

Study the diagram below which shows our solar system and answer the questions that follow.




4.2.1 From the diagram what supports the idea that Pluto is:

(a) A planet?

(2 marks)

(b) Not a planet?

(2 marks)

4.2.2 Why do you think scientists found it difficult to decide what Pluto should be classified as?

(2 marks)
(2+2+2 = 6 marks)

4.3 The diagram below shows the water cycle. Study questions the diagram and answer the that follow.


4.3.1 If the temperature is very row, the rain cools down and changes. what change will happen to the rain if it gets very cold?

(2 marks)

4.3.2 ln which stage of the water cycle above does condensation occur?

(2 marks)

4.3.3 Evaporation and condensation are changes that happen in the water cycle. State which one of these stages is reversible.

(1 mark)

4.3.4 ln the water cycle, water from the sea becomes rain water.

Explain why is rain water not salty when it comes from salty sea water?

(2 marks)
(2+2+1+2 = 7 marks)

TOTAL QUESTION 4 (21)

TOTAL SECTION B (21)
TOTAL QUESTION PAPER (130)